Pescorocchiano (RI). Santuario italico

Pescorocchiano_Deposito votivo in corso di scavo
Tipologia bene scavato
Struttura per il culto - Santuario
Regione / Stato estero
Lazio
Provincia
Rieti
Comune
Pescorocchiano
Localizzazione specifica
S. Angelo di Civitella
Istituto-ufficio competente
Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Lazio
Tipologia scavo
Conduzione diretta
Entità finanziamento
Euro 50.000,00
Anno campagna di scavo
2011
Responsabile di cantiere
Francesca Lezzi
Responsabile scientifico
Giovanna Alvino
Datazione bene scavato: DA
899 a.C. - 200 a.C.
Datazione bene scavato: A
199 a.C. - 476 d.C.

Descrizione campagne

Nel comune di Pescorocchiano (fig. 1), su una collina alle propaggini della frazione di Civitella in loc. S.Angelo (fig. 2), a non molta distanza dall'antico centro di Nersae, è noto fin dagli inizi del XIX secolo muro in opera poligonale che costituisce il recinto di una ampia terrazza, interpretato come struttura relativa ad un santuario.

Posizionamento su base IGM

Posizionamento su base catastale

Il muro (fig. 3), conservato per circa 90 m e per un'altezza di quasi 5 m nel lato meridionale, è realizzato in blocchi lavorati ed accostati molto accuratamente (fig. 4).

Muro di terrazzamento da SO

Planimetria di scavo

Nell'angolo NE, oggi poco visibili, sono scolpiti due falli affrontati con chiaro intento apotropaico. Il santuario è stato oggetto di un importante intervento di restauro nel 1992 resosi indispensabile per la salvaguardia del muro in opera poligonale, in quell'occasione sono stati rinvenuti molti resti fittili pertinenti chiaramente ad un deposito votivo (fig. 5).

Deposito votivo in corso di scavo

Furono allora recuperati ex voto anatomici collegati alla sfera della sanatio (figg. 6-8) e della fecondità (fig. 9), vasellame a vernice nera, monete, due bronzetti raffiguranti Ercole (fig. 10) e Marte (fig. 11),  alcuni frammenti di statue in terracotta di grandi dimensioni.

Mano votivaPiede votivo

Tavoletta polivisceraleUtero votivo

Bronzetto di ErcoleBronzetto di Marte

Nel 2011 la Soprintendenza ha condotto un limitato intervento di scavo che ha permesso il recupero di altro materiale antico relativo alla stipe votiva. Rispetto a quanto già si conosceva del santuario e dei materiali contenuti nella stipe, il dato senza dubbio più significativo è stato il recupero di materiale ceramico iscritto, che permette di formulare un'ipotesi più concreta sulla divinità venerata nel santuario. La presenza di una A incisa dopo la cottura su due frammenti ceramica a vernice nera (figg. 12-13) suggerisce l’identificazione con An­gitia, divinità molto venerata nei pressi del Fucino, dove sorgeva il suo principale tempio.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

A incisa su fondo di vernice nera

A incisa su vernice nera

Questa ipotesi, ad oggi presentata non con certezza assoluta, sembrerebbe essere suffragata dalla tipologia degli ex-voto. Infatti in particolare il rinvenimento di maschere votive rettangolari (fig. 14), rinvenute in gran quantità nel santuario, sembrerebbe legata al culto della dea.

Maschera votiva

Inoltre il recupero di due gocciolatoi a protome leonina (fig. 15) frammentari permette poi di avere un'idea della decorazione fittile che ornava il tempio vero e proprio che sorgeva sulla terrazza sovrastante il terrazzamento in poligonale.

Gocciolatoio a protome leonina

Cronologicamente il deposito votivo si può collocare in età medio-repubblicana più precisamente tra al fine del IV sec. a.C. e la metà del II sec. a.C. I materiali sono inquadrabili nelle tipologie ricorrenti nei depositi votivi etrusco-laziali e campani.

Bibliografia / Cartografia

  • G. Alvino, I santuari, in A. De Santis, F. Coarelli (curr.), Reate e l'Ager Reatinus, Catalogo della mostra di Rieti (Rieti. Museo Civico - Sez. Archeologia; 8 maggio - 22 novembre 2009), 2009.
  • G. Alvino (cur.), Gli Equicoli. I guerrieri delle montagne, 2004, pp. 24-25.
  • G. Alvino, Santuari, culti e paesaggio in un'area italica: il Cicolano, in QuadAEI, 24 (1995), pp. 475-483. 
  • A.R. Staffa, Strutture di età romana in opera poligonale a S. Angelo di Civitella (Pescorocchiano), in  Il Territorio, II, n. 3,1986, pp. 265-273 (con bibliografia precedente).